MIA: History: USA (and publications)

USA History Archive


Early American Marxism The Black Panther Party (1966-1979)
American Marxism didn’t spring from nothing during the Great Depression, there were over sixty years of conflict and struggle before the stock market fell with a thud. Early American Marxism compiles organizational histories and collects documents relating to American radicalism’s early years – from the First International in America to the Socialist Labor Party to the Socialist Party to the Communist Party (and including the Foreign Language Federations that played such a pivotal role in the early American movement). The Black Panthers represented one of the first organized attempts in U.S. history to militantly struggle for racial and working class emancipation – a party which inherited the teachings from Malcolm X to Mao Tse-Tung, and set on their agenda the revolutionary establishment of real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines.


Malcolm X (1925 - 1965) GATT (1948-94)
Black nationalist freedom fighter; Muslim Minister, formerly of the Nation of Islam, which he helped build from an organisation of hundreds to hundreds of thousands. Assassinated. The U.S. began its fundamental control over the world economy after WWII had devestated Europe and left capitalism on the brink of world-wide collapse, through the Bretton Woods Agreements. This archive currently contains the text of The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade, an organisation that soon would become the WTO.


The Triangle Fire (1911) Lawrence, Mass. Strike (1912)
A collection of articles from The New York Call, documenting the disastrous fire that stimulated the growth of unionism among the Italian and Jewish workers in the needle trades in New York, and the passing of fire, building and health regulations. In Lawrence, Massachussettes, europeans immigrating to the US were able to find work. Lawrence was a “mill town” – around half of its 85,000 residents over the age of 14 were working in the mills. Health conditions were so deplorable in the mills that one-third of Lawrence residents died before the age of 25. When the government reduced the working week with mill owners immediately lowering wages, 20,000 unionised workers walked out of the mills.


Teamsters Strike, Minneapolis (1934) Shell Strike (1973) PDF pamphlet
The Minneapolis Teamster strikes of 1934 were among the most important strikes in US labor history. Vicious battles between police, scabs and truckers broke out throughout the summer of 1934 resulting in the workers being in full control of the city of Minneapolis with the police and scabs chased off the streets. These same truckers went on to organize the entire Upper Mid-west trucking industry with more than 250,000 members enrolled. OCAW (Oil, Chemical & Atomic Workers’ Union) Strike against Shell Oil, after continual health and safety concerns went unaddressed by the bosses. Shell, the fourth largest company in the world (at the time), refused to be held accountable for the lack of workers’ safety nor would they allow the workers to change existing health and safety ‘standards’. On January 23, 1973, 4,000 men and women – from the US West coast to the Gulf of Mexico – walked out of five refineries and three chemical plants.


Industrial Workers of the World (1905-present) Civil Rights (1952-present)
The IWW was the most successful revolutionary syndicalist unions ever oganized in the United States. Founding members including Eugene V. Debs, Daniel Deleon, Vincent St. John and many others. The “Wobblies” as they were nick-named went on to lead some of the most important strikes in American history, such as the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike documented on this page. Documents on the history of the Civil Rights Struggle. Under development.


Cuban Missile Crisis (1961-63) Foreign Relations with USSR (1918)
A detailed time-line of the Cuban Missile Crisis based on recently declassified U.S. government documents. This account details event by event leading up to the crisis, including the invasion of the Bay of Pigs, the terrorism (assassination, sabotage, etc) and economic warfare waged by the U.S. just months after the revolution, U.S. nuclear proliferation around the world, and much, much more. Contains documents by various US Ambassadors and Counsels with the US Secretary of State, explaining the current events in Soviet Russia, explaining their positions and thoughts. Organized into three sections, sorted by date, subject, and author.


US Presidents (1892-2000) U.S. Military History (1945-49)
Archiving key documents on various presidents including presidential diktats (executive orders), and charting the candidates for the presidency of the leftist parties throughout the past century, from the Communist to the Green Party, and the success of their presidential campaigns. A time line of U.S. military action since the end of World War II. This span of events currently covers 1945 to 1949, and details every military action of the U.S. military: from suppressing the revolutions of the Philippines, Greece & Italy to losing the civil wars in China, Korea, & Albania.

Newspapers, Magazines and Journals


The Agitator (and The Syndicalist) (1910 – 1913)
The Agitator, later renamed The Syndicalist was the expression of pre-WWI revolutionary syndicalism in the U.S. Organized by Earl Ford, J.W. Johnstone, William Z. Foster, they formed various syndicalist organizations inspired by the revolutionary syndicalism of the French CGT. Failing to win over the IWW to this brand of unionism, his followers set up the Syndicalist Militant Minority League in Chicago. Soon afterwards renaming the paper The Syndicalist as the organ of the Syndicalist League of North America. Unlike the IWW which attempted to compete with the AFL head on, the SLNA attempted to “Bore from within” the AFL.


American Appeal (1920 – 1928) American Socialist (1914 – 1917)
Journal of the Socialist Party of America in the 1920s. This paper was the continuation of the American Socialist also pubslished in Chicago. Formally edited by Eugene V. Debs, the paper reflected the centrist leadership of the SPA after the split of the communists in the 1919-1920 period. The archive containls the 100 weekly issues spanning 1926 and 1927. This newsaper was the official organ of the Socialist Party of America in the pre-WWI years. Edited by J. L. Enghdal, it reflected the reformist and electoralist tendencies of the leadership of Party nationally at that time. It was also very much a campaign paper covering the increasing number of electoral victories of the SP during the early years of the World War. Of special note was the coverage it afforded the left-wing anti-war candidacy of Eugene V. Debs.


The Class Struggle (1917 – 1919) The Communist (1919-1921)
The Class Struggle was a bi-monthly Marxist theoretical magazine published in New York City by the Socialist Publication Society. Among the initial editors of the publication were Ludwig Lore, Marxist theoreticians Louis B. Boudin and Louis C. Fraina, the former of whom left the publication in 1918. In the third and final year of the periodical, The Class Struggle emerged as one of the primary English-language voices of the left wing factions within the American Socialist Party and its final issue was published by the nascent Communist Labor Party of America. The Communist was an American radical newspaper the official voice of the nascent American communist movement. The publication, replaced by the official organ of the new Communist Party of America, a weekly newspaper known as The Communist. Other periodicals named "The Communist" were published from 1929 to 1932, and in 1968. The issues below are a list of the full run of the serial’s first incarnation. Writers for the Periodical included Louis Frainia, V. I. Lenin, John Reed, Leon Trotsky, and many others.


The Daily Worker (1923 – 1958) Fight – Against War and Fascism (1933-1939)
The Daily Worker was the daily newspaper the Communist Party, U.S.A. Carrying on the tradition of The Toiler and other communist journals, the The Daily Worker became the central organ of the U.S. Section of the Communist International, the Communist Party, USA. The launching of The Daily Worker represented the organizational and political consolidation of the various strands of pro-Bolshevik communism in the United States. One of the longest running leftwing periodicals with the same name, in U.S. history. Published in broadsheet format until the 1950s when it became a tabloid size journal. Fight Against War and Fascism newspaper was the American League Against War and Fascism, an organization formed in 1933 by the Communist Party USA and pacifists united by their concern as Nazism and Fascism rose in Europe. In 1937 the name of the group was changed to the American League for Peace and Democracy. The newspaper folded along with the organization when the Hitler-Stalin Pact was signed in 1939


Good Morning Health & Hygeine (1934-1935)
Good Morning was an American left-wing humor magazine published from 1919 to 1922 by the cartoonist Art Young. Other contributors included Ellis Jones, Samuel Roth and Mabel Dwight. The first issue appeared on 8 May 1919, with Young collaborating with Ellis Jones. The magazine’s slogan was ‘A Weekly Burst of Humor, Satire and Fun With Now and Then A Fleeting Beam of Wisdom’. Though established as a weekly, Good Morning found survival hard. After a hiatus from July to October 1919 Young (now without Jones) re-established the magazine as a semi-monthly. With its slogan now ‘To Laugh That We May Not Weep’, the magazine kept its “independent, whimsical leftist slant”. Health & Hygeine Publication launched with support from the Communist Party, USA in 1935 to give a leftist perspective on issues surrounding health care in America. It was sub-headed as “The Magazine of the Daily Worker Medical Advisory Board.


Industrial Organizer (1941) Industrial Union Bulletin / Industrial Worker (1907 - 1913)
The Industrial Organizer, the continuation of the Northwest Organizer which ended in Auguast of 1941, was the voice of the most militant section of the U.S. working class in the late 1941. The Trotskyist lead Local 544-CIO was under attack by both Daniel Tobin, the boss of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the FDR government who saw Local 544-CIO as a threat to labor peace they were trying to impose on the northern Central States. Much of the paper is is devoted to defending the Local from these attacks are well as reports on other militant actions by the working class during this period The Industrial Union Bulletin, and the Industrial Worker were newspapers published by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Representing the socialist and revolutionary syndicalist views of early industrial organizing, these papers chronicalled the fierce, sometimes armed, class struggles of the pre-WWI period during the height of America’s industrial oligarchical period. The IWW was the most radical trade union in U.S. History.


International Socialist Review (1900 - 1918) Labor Age (1929 - 1933)
Monthly magazine published in Chicago, Illinois by Charles H. Kerr & Co. Loyal to the Socialist Party of America throughout the entire course of its existence, the International Socialist Review after 1908 was recognized as one of the primary voices of the party’s left wing. It defended the concept of revolutionary socialism against those who would reduce the Socialist Party to a party of simple reform, championd the Industrial Workers of the World, consistently fought against the expansion of militarism, and provided a vehicle for the leaders of the Zimmerwald Left to relay their ideas to an American audience. Labor Age was a left-labor monthly magazine published by the Labor Publication Society from 1921-1933. It succeeded the Socialist Review, journal of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. Labor Age aligned with the League for Industrial Democracy, and during 1929-33 the magazine was affiliated with the Conference for Progressive Labor Action with A. J. Muste playing a prominent role. Other important figures associated with Labor Age were James Maurer, Harry W. Laidler, and Louis Budenz. The magazine advocated industrial unionism, economic planning and the nationalization of industries. It was also a major promoter of the workers education movement.


Labor Defender (1926-1930) Labor Herald (1922-1924)
The Labor Defender was a monthly magazine the International Labor Defense, founded by Communist Party leaders James P. Cannon but included a variety of supporters from other currents like Eugene V. Debs and Upton Sinclair. The ILD began with a discussion between James P. Cannon and "Big Bill" Haywood in Haywood’s room in Moscow in 1925. Cannon recalls that "the old fighter, who was exiled from America with a 20-year old sentence handing over him was deeply concerned about the persecution of workers in America. The ILD was set up with this mind and the Labor Defender it’s monthly pictorial. The Labor Herald was the official organ of the Trade Union Educational League (TUEL). Established by William Z. Foster in 1920 as a means of uniting radicals within various trade unions for a common plan of action. The group was subsidized by the Communist International via the Communist Party of America from 1922. The organization did not collect membership dues but instead ostensibly sought to both fund itself and to spread its ideas through the sale of pamphlets and circulation of a monthly magazine. After several years of initial success, the group was marginalized by the unions of the American Federation of Labor, which objected to its strategy of “boring from within” existing unions in order to depose sitting union leaderships.


The Liberator (1918-1924) Labor Unity (1927-1934)
The Liberator was a monthly magazine established by Max Eastman and his sister Crystal Eastman in 1918 to continue the work of The Masses, which was shut down by the wartime mailing regulations of the US Government. It was a journal which combined astute radical political coverage of events of the day, fine art, poetry, and some of the best left-wing political cartoons in the history of American journalism. Labor Unity was the official organ of the Trade Union Unity League (TUEL). The TUUL was an industrial union umbrella organization of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) between 1929 and 1935. The group was the American affiliate to the Red International of Labor Unions. It was the result of the Communist International’s Third Period policy, which dictated that affiliated Communist Parties pursue a strategy of dual unionism and thus abandon attempts to “bore from within” existing trade unions.


The Organizer (1934 – 1940) The New Review (1913 – 1917)
Newspaper of the fighting Teamsters local 574 during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strikes in the summer of 1934. It was produced, varyingly, daily and weekly depending on the class struggle during the summer months that year. I chronically the the 3 large strikes that turned Minneapolis around from being a non-union open shop town to a completely union town. The paper was edited by James P. Cannon. This journal’s purpose was make known “the intellectual achievements of Marx and his successors” to the “awakened, self-conscious proletariat on the toilsome road that leads to its emancipation.” In practice, it proved to be a theoretical magazine by intellectuals, for intellectuals. This was in 1913. Never intending to be ideologically homogeneous, the trend of The New Review over the three-and-a-half years of its existence was from Center to Left. The magazine was active in attempting to make sense of the hot button issues of syndicalism and mass action in 1913, maintaining a sympathetic posture. It provided a forum for the writing of two of the principals of left wing New York literary-artistic magazine “The Masses,” Max Eastman and Floyd Dell. It dealt extensively with the issues of feminism, American intervention in Mexico, the growth of militarism, and the role of the International Socialist movement in the war.


New Justice (1919-1920)
Short lived revolutionary communist journal published by the Friends of the Russian Revolution out of Los Angeles. Like many soon-to-be communist journals that sprung up on an ad-hoc basis by left wing members of the Socialist Party of America and IWW, this journal lasted less than and year and was folded into other communist periodicals of the Communist movement founded in 1919.


Northwest Organizer (1936-1941) The Masses (1911 - 1917)
The Northwest Organizer was published by the Teamsters Joint Council in Minneapolis, Minn. from 1936 through the middle of August 1941. The Trotskyist lead Local 544-AFL was the main force behind the Northwest Organizer and the Teamsters union throughout the upper-midwest during this period. The Local had gone an organizing drive for the entire upper Mississippi/Missouri valley and the paper was launched in the main as the tribune of this organizing drive. The Masses was a graphically innovative magazine of socialist politics published monthly in the United States from 1911 until 1917, when federal prosecutors brought charges against its editors for conspiring to obstruct conscription. It was succeeded by The Liberator and then later The New Masses. It published reportage, fiction, poetry and art by the leading radicals of the time such as Max Eastman, John Reed, Dorothy Day, and Floyd Dell. The stunning cover art set the standard for all magazines of the day.


The Ohio Socialist (1918 – 1920) Listing of Trotskyist Journals (1928 – )
Newspaper of the Ohio Socialist Party it represented the Left Wing of the Socialist Party of the America. The newspaper reflected the strong anti-war positions of the mostly immigrant Cleveland working class and the Ohio Socialist became the tribune for this sentiment throught Ohio and other parts of the eastern Mid-West. Strong supporters of Eugene V. Debs it’s editors and readers became supporters of the newly founded Communist Labor Party in 1919. It merged The Communist to become The Toiler as the main weekly of the new communist movement. All U.S. Trotskyist periodicals are located in the newspaper section of the Encyclopedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL). We have full runs of The Militant and The New Militant 1928 – 1936; Socialist Appeal 1937; Labor Action, 1936 – 1937; and many others.
Listing of Maoist, New Communist and Anti-Revisionist Journals (1946 – )
A full listing of the post-WWII “Anti-Revisionist” movement (Maoist, Hohxite, New Communist Movement, etc.) is maintained in an extensive page in the Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line (EROL).


The Revolutionary Age (1918 – 1919) Revolutionary Age (1929 – 1932)
The Revolutionary Age The Revolutionary Age was an American Marxist newspaper edited by Louis C. Fraina and published from November 1918 until August 1919. Originally the publication of Local Boston, Socialist Party, the paper evolved into the de facto national organ of the Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party which battled for control of the Socialist Party throughout the spring and summer of 1919. With the establishment of the Left Wing National Council in June 1919, the paper was moved from Boston to New York City and thus gained status as the official voice of the nascent American communist movement. The publication was terminated in August 1919, replaced by the official organ of the new Communist Party of America, a weekly newspaper known as The Communist. Revolutionary Age was the twice-monthly journal of the Communist Party (Majority Group) associated with the International Right Opposition and N. Bukharin in the U.S.S.R. The paper started publicaction within a few months of The Militant, the paper of the Left Opposition. Jay Lovestone was the best known leader of this Right Opposition organization. The journal ran for 2 years when it morphed into Workers Age in early 1932.
Southern Worker (1930 – 1937)
The Southern Worker was a newspaper the Communist Party set up in Birmigham, Alabama, in the "Deep South" of the U.S. Deisgned to spread organize workers inthe CP it directly confronted the racism of Jim Crow segration.


Soviet Russia Pictorial (1923) The Young Worker
Soviet Russia Pictorial was the monthly magazine of the Friends of Soviet Russia (FSR). The FSR was formally established in the United States on August 9, 1921 as an offshoot of the American Labor Alliance for Trade Relations with Soviet Russia (ALA). It was launched as a "mass organization" dedicated to raising funds for the relief of the extreme famine that swept Soviet Russia in 1921, both in terms of food and clothing for immediate amelioration of the crisis and agricultural tools and equipment for the reconstruction of Soviet agriculture. In 1924 it was merged with Workers Monthly and The Labor Herald to become The Liberator. The Young Worker was the organ of the Young Workers League, the first youth group of the early American Communist Party. Running through at least 1927, this monthly was initially edited by later-Trotskyist Max Shachtman, the YWL’s first General Sectretary. Unlike it’s parent organization, the Communist Party, the YWL was a legal outlet for communist work among the youth.


The Young Socialist (1957 – 1964) The Toiler (1918 – 1920)
The Young Socialist is the magazine of the Young Socialist Alliance, associated with the Socialist Workers Party in the U.S. The early years of the YS however, reflected a regroupment of revolutionary socialist forces among young people and radicals in the 1950s that was beginning to take place around the various events of the era, most notably the Khrushchev revelations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union’s 20th Party Congress in 1956 along with the Soviet invasion to crush the Hungarian workers revolution that year had a profound effect on Marxists across the board. The ending in that decade with the victory of the Cuban Revolution capped this new world situation that socialists were reacting too. Domestically the progressive and socialist back-lash to McCarthyist-era repression against the Left dovetailing with the rise of the new Civil Rights movement started drawing young people from the enforced cultural and political lethargy into active political action around these issues.
The Toiler was a weekly regional transitional publication of the American Communist movement. Although little-known, the paper occupied a significant place between its state-oriented Socialist Party predecessor, The Ohio Socialist, and its well-known national Communist successor, The Daily Worker. Some 113 issues were produced on the road from Point A to Point B, a trip which took more than two years. The transitional nature of this publication relfected the ongoing fationalism in the communist movement during the consoldiation of the movement into one national party instead of the previous two parties, the Communist Labor Party and the Communist Party of America. The paper was published out of Cleveland, Ohio, as was its predecessor, The Ohio Socialist. On its masthead read “Official Organ of the Communist Labor Party of Ohio”. The Toiler was edited by Elmer T. Alison. The size of the paper varied all the way from large broadsheet down to journal size before it merged into the Daily Worker.


The Washington Socialist (1914 – 1915) Western Worker (1932 - 1937)
The Washington Socialist was a newspaper of the Socialist Party of America based in Everett, Washginton. Closely aligned with the militant IWW it was the voice of socialism in the Pacific Northwest for it’s short 18 month run.
Newspaper of the Communist Party, USA, published in San Francisco and covering the western the states. Highlights include coverage of the 1932 and 1933 agricultural workers strikes in California and later, the 1934 Maritime Strike and SF General Strike.


The Western Comrade
The Western Comrade was a socialist magazine published in the 1910s in Los Angeles, California. It was associated with the Llano del Rio utopian community of 1914-1918. The Western Comrade began publishing in April 1913. It published 5 volumes, the last issue dated March-April 1918 (by which time the publication had moved from California to Louisiana along with much of the Llano colony). Two later issues of a sixth volume followed in 1918 under the title "The Internationalist", before the magazine folded.


The Workers World (Kansas City, 1919 – 1920) Workers Age (1931 – 1941)
The Workers World a weekly publication of the Socialist Party in Kansas City, Missoiuri. It was edited at varying times by both Earl Browder who later went on to become Sect’y of the Communist Party and James P. Cannon, also a leader of the Communist Party who went to found the Trotskyist movement in the U.S. While associated with the Socialist Party, the paper was firmly in that party’s left-wing. It was one of the many left wing SP periodicals inspired by and firmly supporting the Russian Revolution, and (like many other such left wing SP periodicals) ended as those involved in it left the SP to organize the new Communist Party of America and Communist Labor Party, and develop new periodicals for those organizations. Because of this, these issues of The Workers World are located in the Communist Party, USA archive on the MIA. Contiuation of Revolutionary Age published by the Communist opposition block known as the “Communist Party, U.S.A. – Majority Group”. Notable writers for this publication included Ben Gitlow and Jay Lovestone.
The Worker (1919 – 1920)
Representing the Boston and vincity are branches of the newly formed Communist Party, The Worker was a short-lived organ of these early Massachussetts Communists. The Worker was shortly merged with other regional and natioanl communist publication efforts.


Worker’s Council (1921) The Workers Monthly(1924 – 1927)
The Worker’ Council were primarily devoted to events within the world of American radical politics. The journal’s specific purpose was to win the Socialist party of America (S.P.A.) to affiliation with the recently founded Third or Communist International (Comintern). Its publishers included some Socialists who were apparently part of the party establishment. J. Louis Engdahl, for example, was editor of the S.P.A.’s official organ, The Eye Opener. Others were Benjamin Glassberg, a New York City schoolteacher; Moissaye J. Olgin, a popular Jewish writer; and J. B. Salutsky, editor of the radical Jewish weekly, Naye Welt. All were at least personally connected with the party’s Jewish Federation and, organized after mid-1920 as the Committee for the Third International, they comprised the S.P.A.’s left Wing. Workers Monthly is the contiunation of The Liberator arguably the greatest radical magazine ever produced in America which began in the spring of 1918 as a successor to the New York left wing political, artistic, and literary magazine The Masses, which had been effectively terminated by postal censorship and Justice Department prosecution during World War I. Workers Monthly continued the cover art-work often created with charcoal and simple paints one found on the covers of The Liberator.




1840: Democracy in America, by Alexander De Tocqueville
1921: History of the United States, by Mary Beard. Note: This book is a secondary source.
1929: Red Cartoons, by Fred Ellis and Jacob Burk, cartoonists for the The Daily Worker.
1935: CPUSA: Manual on Organisation: This booklet was published in 1935 and became an indispensible tool for party members around the USA on how to conduct every aspect of their affairs: from organising Shop, Town, and Street Units to disciplinary measures.

Selected images of Book Covers.


Little Red Library 11 pamplets published by the Communist Party USA in the 1920s

To volunteer, ask questions, or send comments, mail D. Walters.